- We use this for actions
happening now, at the moment of speaking.
(You are reading
this. / She's drinking a cup of coffee. /
What's happening? / They aren't working today.)
- The concept is short-term, temporary.
We often use words like 'now' or 'at the moment'.
(I'm reading an
interesting book at the moment.)
- There is a future meaning when we refer to plans or arrangements.
(How long are you staying?
/ He's visiting a client tomorrow morning.)
- We use this for repeated
actions, happening around now; and for
general states and facts.
(He works in a bank.
/ Does she usually get up early? /
They live in Switzerland. / It rains a lot in England.)
- The concept is long-term, permanent.
We often use frequency words
like 'often', 'always', 'sometimes', 'never' or 'twice
(He usually walks to
work, but sometimes he rides his bicycle.)
- There is a future meaning when we refer to timetables or schedules.
(The train leaves at
nine o'clock and arrives at twelve. /
What time does the film start?)
Write the correct form of the verb - Present Simple or Continuous.
1 - Where _____ you
_____ from? come
2 - It ________ late: we
must go. get
3 - What time _____ the
train usually _____ ? arrive
4 - Water ________ at
100°C, and ________ at 0°C.
boil / freeze
5 - _____ you _____
anything this evening? do
6 - They normally
________ every Saturday, but this week
go out / stay in
7 - I ________ a new
project at the moment. work
When writing (in British English), the word 'if'
is sometimes omitted from conditional sentences, for reasons of style. To do this, the
'Should.. (x happen)'
/ 'Were.. (x to happen)'
/ 'Had.. (x
happened)' are used.
(Should it rain
tomorrow, the party will still go ahead. / Were it to rain tomorrow, the party would still go ahead. / Had it rained yesterday, the party would still have gone ahead.)
These structures correspond to Conditionals I, II and III, respectively:
(I - 'If it rains..'
or 'If it should rain*..' / II - 'If it rained..' or 'If it were to rain*..' / III - 'If it had rained..')
* 'should/were to' in these conditions indicate something is (slightly) less likely to
('If you meet John..' - it's quite possible. / 'If you should meet John..'
- by chance)
I - If
removed, inversion of the subject and should. II - If removed, inversion of the subject and were.
III - If removed, inversion of the subject and had.
('If you should
meet John..' - 'Should you meet John..' /
'If your boss were to ask you..' - 'Were your boss to
ask you..' /
'If we'd known about it..' - 'Had we known about it..')
Take care with
('If it's raining..' - 'If it
should be raining..' - 'Should it be raining..' /
'If it was raining..' - 'If it were to be raining..' - 'Were it to be
..and negative constructions.
('If I hadn't been so tired..'
- 'Had I not been so tired..')
Rewrite the following conditions
using the appropriate
inversion structure. (Answers
If you should require any further information.. 2 - If aliens were to land tomorrow.. 3 - If I'd known their address.. 4 - If he were to change his mind.. 5 - If they hadn't been able to speak English.. 6 - If you should hear from John in the next few days.. 7 - If the company paid its staff more.. 8 - If you do not wish to receive further product news.. 9 - If his alarm clock hadn't woken him up.. 10 - If we'd had enough money.. 11 - If the flight is delayed for more than three hours.. 12 - If they couldn't speak English..
Now complete the sentences with an appropriate
ending. (Send me your answers for correction - a free service!)